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The Regional Medical Center of Acadiana
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Women's & Children's Hospital
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Copper

Supplement Forms / Alternate Names :

  • Copper Complexes of Various Amino Acids
  • Copper Gluconate
  • Copper Picolinate
  • Copper Sulfate

Uses

Principal Proposed Uses

  • To Balance High Zinc Intake

The human body contains only 70 to 80 mg of copper in total, but it's an essential part of many important enzymes. Copper's possible role in treating disease is based on the fact that these enzymes can't do their jobs without it. However, there is little direct evidence that taking extra copper can treat any disease.

Requirements/Sources

The official U.S. recommendations for daily intake of copper are as follows:

  • Infants 0–6 months, 200 mcg 7–12 months, 220 mcg
  • Children 1–3 years, 340 mcg 4–8 years, 440 mcg
  • Males and females 9–13 years, 700 mcg 14–18 years, 890 mcg 19 years and older, 900 mcg
  • Pregnant women, 1,000 mcg
  • Nursing women, 1,300 mcg

High zinc intake reduces copper stores in the body; 1,2 for this reason, if you are taking zinc in doses above nutritional levels (as, for example, in the treatment of macular degeneration ), you will need extra copper.

In addition, if you are taking iron or large doses of vitamin C , you may need extra copper. 3–7 Ideally, you should take copper at least 2 hours apart from these two nutrients, so that they don't interfere with each other's absorption.

Oysters, nuts, legumes, whole grains, sweet potatoes, and dark greens are good sources of copper. Drinking water that passes through copper plumbing is a good source of this mineral, and sometimes it may even provide too much.

Therapeutic Dosages

For the various therapeutic uses described in the next section, copper is often recommended at a high (but still safe) dose of 1 to 3 mg (1,000 to 3,000 mcg) daily.

Therapeutic Uses

Copper has been proposed as a treatment for osteoporosis , based primarily on studies that found benefit using combinations of various trace minerals including copper. 8,9  However, one study found that copper supplements taken alone may not be helpful. 11

One researcher, L. M. Klevay, has claimed in more than a dozen papers that copper deficiencies increase the risk of high cholesterol and heart disease , but he has failed to supply any real evidence that this idea is true. A small double-blind, placebo-controlled study of copper supplements for reducing heart disease risk factors such as cholesterol profile found no benefit. 10

Copper has long been mentioned as a possible treatment for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis , but there is as yet no real evidence that it works.

Safety Issues

The following daily doses of copper should not be exceeded:

  • Children 1 to 3 years, 1,000 mcg 4 to 8 years, 3,000 mcg 9 to 13 years, 5,000 mcg
  • Males and females 14 to 18 years, 8,000 mcg 19 years and older, 10,000 mcg
  • Pregnant or nursing women, 10,000 mcg (8,000 mcg if 18 years old or younger)

Maximum safe dosages of copper for individuals with severe liver or kidney disease have not been determined.

Interactions You Should Know About

If you are taking

  • Zinc : You need to make sure to get enough copper.
  • Iron supplements or high doses of vitamin C : You may need extra copper. If you do take a copper supplement, it might be ideal to take it either 2 hours before or after these other substances.

Revision Information

  • 1

    Bremner I, Beattie JH. Copper and zinc metabolism in health and disease: speciation and interactions. Proc Nutr Soc. 1995;54:489–499.

  • 2

    Fosmire GJ. Zinc toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:225–227.

  • 3

    Haschke F, Ziegler EE, Edwards BB, et al. Effect of iron fortification of infant formula on trace mineral absorption. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1986;5:768–773.

  • 4

    Milne DB, Klevay LM, Hunt JR. Effects of ascorbic acid supplements and a diet marginal in copper on indices of copper nutriture in women. Nutr Res. 1988;8:865–873.

  • 5

    Finley EB, Cerklewski FL. Influence of ascorbic acid supplementation on copper status in young adult men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;37:553–556.

  • 6

    Jacob RA, Skala JH, Omaye ST, et al. Effect of varying ascorbic acid intakes on copper absorption and ceruloplasmin levels of young men. J Nutr. 1987;117:2109–2115.

  • 7

    Harris ED, Percival SS. A role for ascorbic acid in copper transport. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(suppl):1193S–1197S.

  • 8

    Saltman PD, Strause LG. The role of trace minerals in osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr . 1993;12:384–389.

  • 9

    Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, et al. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr . 1994;124:1060–1064.

  • 10

    Jones AA, DiSilvestro RA, Coleman M, et al. Copper supplementation of adult men: Effects on blood copper enzyme activities and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. Metabolism . 1997;46:1380–1383.

  • 11

    Cashman KD, Baker A, Ginty F, et al. No effect of copper supplementation on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in healthy young adult females despite apparently improved copper status. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55:525–531.